Sundials and other devices

The sundial, which measures the time of day by using the sun casting a shadow onto a cylindrical stone, was widely used in ancient times. A well-constructed sundial can measure local solar time with reasonable accuracy, and sundials continued to be used to monitor the performance of clocks until the modern era. However, its practical limitations—it requires the sun to shine and does not work at all during the night—encouraged the use of other techniques for measuring time.

Candle clocks and sticks of incense that burn down at approximately predictable speeds have also been used to estimate the passing of time. In an hourglass, fine sand pours through a tiny hole at a constant rate and indicates a predetermined passage of an arbitrary period of time.

Water clocks

Water clocks, also known as clepsydrae (sg: clepsydra), along with the sundials, are possibly the oldest time-measuring instruments, with the only exceptions being the vertical gnomon and the day-counting tally stick.[3] Given their great antiquity, where and when they first existed are not known and perhaps unknowable. The bowl-shaped outflow is the simplest form of a water clock and is known to have existed in Babylon and in Egypt around the 16th century BC. Other regions of the world, includingIndia and China, also have early evidence of water clocks, but the earliest dates are less certain. Some authors, however, write about water clocks appearing as early as 4000 BC in these regions of the world.[4]

Greek astronomer, Andronicus of Cyrrhus, supervised the construction of the Tower of the Winds in Athens in the 1st century B.C.[5]

The Greek and Roman civilizations are credited for initially advancing water clock design to include complex gearing,[6][dead link] which was connected to fanciful automata and also resulted in improved accuracy. These advances were passed on throughByzantium and Islamic times, eventually making their way back to Europe. Independently, the Chinese developed their own advanced water clocks(水鐘)in 725 A.D., passing their ideas on to Korea and Japan.

Some water clock designs were developed independently and some knowledge was transferred through the spread of trade. Pre-modern societies do not have the same precise timekeeping requirements that exist in modern industrial societies, where every hour of work or rest is monitored, and work may start or finish at any time regardless of external conditions. Instead, water clocks in ancient societies were used mainly for astrological reasons. These early water clocks were calibrated with a sundial. While never reaching the level of accuracy of a modern timepiece, the water clock was the most accurate and commonly used timekeeping device for millennia, until it was replaced by the more accurate pendulum clock in 17th century Europe.

Islamic civilization is credited with further advancing the accuracy of clocks with elaborate engineering. In 797 (or possibly 801), the Abbasid caliph of Baghdad, Harun al-Rashid, presented Charlemagne with anAsian Elephant named Abul-Abbas together with a "particularly elaborate example" of a water[7] clock.

Early mechanical clocks

None of the first clocks survived from 13th century Europe, but various mentions in church records reveal some of the early history of the clock.

The word horologia (from the Greek ὡρα, hour, and λέγειν, to tell) was used to describe all these devices,[9] but the use of this word (still used in several Romance languages) for all timekeepers conceals from us the true nature of the mechanisms. For example, there is a record that in 1176 Sens Cathedral installed a ‘horologe’[citation needed] but the mechanism used is unknown. According to Jocelin of Brakelond, in 1198 during a fire at the abbey of St Edmundsbury (now Bury St Edmunds), the monks 'ran to the clock' to fetch water, indicating that their water clock had a reservoir large enough to help extinguish the occasional fire.[10]

Specific types of clocks


By mechanism, By function, By style, Astronomical clock, Atomic clock, Candle clock, Congreve clock, Digital clock, Electric clock, Flip clock, Hourglass, Incense clock, Mechanical watch, Oil-lamp clock, Pendulum clock, Pipe organ clock, Projection clock, Quantum clock, Quartz clock, Radio clock, Rolling ball clock, Spring drive watch, Steam clock, Sundial, Torsion pendulum clock, Water clock, 10-hour clock, Alarm clock, Binary clock, Chiming clock, Chronometer watch, Cuckoo clock, Game clock, Japanese clock, Master clock, Musical clock, Railroad chronometer, Slave clock, Speaking clock, Stopwatch, Striking clock, Talking clock, Tide clock, Time ball, Time clock, World clock, American clock, Automaton clock, Balloon clock, Banjo clock, Bracket clock, Carriage clock, Cartel clock, Cat clock, Clock tower, Cuckoo clock, Doll's head clock, Floral clock, French Empire mantel clock, Granddaughter clock, Grandfather clock, Grandmother clock, Lantern clock, Lighthouse clock, Longcase clock (or tall-case clock), Mantel clock, Skeleton clock, Tower clock, Turret clock, Watch

Watches. The invention of clocks. Fashion watches 

All Chronograph is hronoskopamy - they show zasichenyy time but not record it ("chronos" - time, "grapho" - write). So chronograph - a clock showing hours, minutes and seconds, combined with the chronometric device that allows you to make measurements of time intervals (stopwatch). The central chronograph hand shows the seconds, usually in steps of 1 / 5 seconds, one of the small dials recorded minutes, usually up to 30 minutes for other watches, usually up to 12 hours. 

The invention relates to chronograph in 1720, when an English watchmaker by the name of Graham (Graham) made the first clock, which allowed to measure the segment with an accuracy of 1 / 16 second. In 1831 was invented split chronograph - watches with stopwatch function with the semifinal. And the first chronograph, the principles of which have remained unchanged to this day (inclusion, stop and return to zero) was developed by Adolph Nicolet (Adolphe Nicole) in 1862. From this period to the middle of the century was about 400 inventions that relate to the improvement of the chronograph mechanism. 

Particularly widespread chronograph received with the development of aeronautics and sports. Thanks to the progress and improvement requirements chronograph was invented chronograph function with fly-back. For air navigation on small aircraft used a compass and clock. Moving at the rate laid in the air corridors, the pilot must follow in a given direction by compass during the specified periods of time. When you change the course he must start a new countdown. At higher speeds and low altitude flight to the fastest switching chronometer with a minimum number of movements. This feature was invented fly-back, which allows evidence chronograph reset simultaneously with the beginning of a new timer. This uses only one button, unlike the standard chronograph, where you need two. This chronograph for the first time produced for the Luftwaffe in the 30 years the Swiss company Hanhart and Tutima. 

In 1910 appeared the first wrist chronograph (hours). In general, the development of watches and chronograph went one by one. Innovation in manufacturing watches zyavlyalysya quickly and in the manufacture chronograph. 

Waterproof watches

The advent of waterproof watches in 1930 led to the emergence of water-resistant chronograph in 1933. The same thing happened and with the advent of anti-magnetic watches. Although there were exceptions. In 30-40s have received extensive development of the auto winding watches. But the combination of auto winding chronometre and the more mass production of automatic chronograph was impossible because then the existing technical problems. For example, Lemania - one of the largest manufacturers of watch mechanisms, already developed automatic chronograph in 1947, but its serial production has not started. As a result, over the next 20 years, until 1965, significant changes in manufacturing automatic chronograph has occurred.

Clock with auto winding 

In 1965 the Association was established with companies Buren-Hamilton, Breitling, Dubois-Depraz and Heuer-Leonidas to solve the problem of communication mechanism chronograph watch with auto winding mechanism. As a result, 3 March 1969 he was presented the first automatic chronograph Chronomatic (from CHRONOgraph and autoMATIC). He worked at a rate of 19,800 per hour napivkolyvan. Chronomatic produced from 1969 to 1972. Then was invented Caliber 12 with frequency napivkolyvan 21,600 per hour. 

Modern Watches 

"Rolls-Royce" among the considered chronograph Chronographe rattrapante (split-chronograph), watches, with two second hand, allowing time zasikty semifinal. This sophisticated feature allows you to record the duration of each of the two events are simultaneous start, but end at different times. Of course this chronograph has a third button which performs and split function. Pressing this button one of the arrows (split) stops, while the other continues timing. This allows zasikty right time, without stopping the stopwatch. After repeatedly pressing the same buttons seconds hand that stopped, joined to the moving. If you need to fix as an interim or final and you need to press another button below the crown.

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